[S2E2] Shape Shifted
The rod-like spike proteins on the surface of SARS CoV-2 are the tip of the spear of the COVID-19 pandemic. The spikes bind to human cells via the ACE2 receptor and then dramatically change shape. They jack-knife, folding in on themselves to fuse their own membrane with the membrane of our cells. And that opens the door to coronavirus infection.
[S2E2] Shape Shifted
Overwatch 2's next hero is Ramattra, an Omnic shape-shifting tank. We got to see that shape-shifting in action for the first time in a new hero trailer released earlier tonight. If you want a glimpse of his powers in action ahead of his release as part of Overwatch 2's season two on December 6th, check below.
Scott continues to fight the freezer until the chains and lock finally snap and he runs upstairs, fully shifted. There is a reptilian-humanoid creature crawling on the ceiling. It runs away without attacking.
Since I have switched to a lightweight Granite Gear pack that does not have a reservoir sleeve I needed a reservoir with a short slim profile. With the baffle locked the Shape Shift has a rectangular shape that is less bulbous than when the baffle is unlocked.
After testing the Shape Shift in a variety of packs from a backpack to a day pack to my mountain bike pack I am really impressed with how a different shaped opening, locking system, and valve operation make in the use of the reservoir.
Ever wish you could change a 3D model figure's shape to your liking? Now you can! Shape Shift is a set of custom, isolated morphs designed to give you even more freedom in morphing existing figure shapes, as well as giving you the ability to enhance your own. With a total of 92 morphs, you can combine them to get that look you want. Create realistic shapes, or even stylized shapes, with ease. The choice is yours!
A hallmark of living systems is the ability to employ a common set of building blocks that can self-organize into a multitude of different structures. This capability can only be afforded in non-equilibrium conditions, as evident from the energy-consuming nature of the plethora of such dynamical processes. To achieve automated dynamical control of such self-assembled structures and transitions between them, we need to identify the fundamental aspects of non-equilibrium dynamics that can enable such processes. Here we identify programmable non-reciprocal interactions as a tool to achieve such functionalities. The design rule is composed of reciprocal interactions that lead to the equilibrium assembly of the different structures, through a process denoted as multifarious self-assembly, and non-reciprocal interactions that give rise to non-equilibrium dynamical transitions between the structures. The design of such self-organized shape-shifting structures can be implemented at different scales, from nucleic acids and peptides to proteins and colloids.
Here we introduce the non-reciprocal multifarious self-organization model by incorporating non-reciprocal interactions into the equilibrium multifarious self-assembly model. We show that this non-equilibrium model is capable of inducing the shape-shifting property in the system in conjunction with multifarious self-assembly (Fig. 1a). We aim to find the best parameter space to realize this new shape-shifting regime and to characterize its properties. We show that shape shifters can be observed in a subset of the parameter space where multifarious assembly occurs. We find that the strength of the non-reciprocal interactions provides us with a control parameter to convert any selected multifarious self-assembly regime to the multifarious self-organization regime. We characterize the new shape-shifting behaviour by probing the frequency of shifts and the capacity and stability of cycle formation, as well as the entropy production that measures the degree of non-equilibrium activity in the self-organization process.
To help guide a practical implementation of the ideas presented here in practice, we have performed a three-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulation in which the self-organization of tiles is initiated with a seed that is placed in the middle of the box (Methods and Supplementary Information). Although a lattice implementation of square tiles is used to directly enable a comparison with the Monte Carlo simulation, we expect to obtain similar results for a continuum implementation of the model as well. Our observations confirm the main findings presented above, as shown by the shape-shifting time evolution presented in Extended Data Fig. 6 (Supplementary Fig. 20 shows another example in which premature shifting is observed).
We have introduced the non-reciprocal multifarious self-organization model, which is capable of both retrieval of stored structures and inducing choreographed transitions between them, hence realizing shape-shifting structures. Through extensive simulations and systematic scanning of the parameter space of the model, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the shape-shifter design strategy that is triggered by non-reciprocal interactions. Therefore, we have identified programmable non-reciprocal interactions as a non-equilibrium paradigm using which the automated dynamical control of self-assembled structures and transitions between them can be realized. We have shown that the underlying mechanism of retrieval and shifts take place at different timescales. Moreover, we have demonstrated how our strategy can also find application in avoiding kinetics traps of chimera formation, which is a notorious problem of equilibrium self-assembly (Supplementary Information provides a detailed discussion).
There have been a number of studies concerning how specific interactions can be designed in colloidal systems such that desired self-assembly routes can be experimentally realized2,34,35, although these ideas have been explored in the context of protein complexes as well7. On the other hand, catalytically active colloids and enzymes with effective phoretic interactions have been shown to exhibit non-reciprocal interactions13,14,15,16,17, which are required for the shape-shifting behaviour to emerge. Therefore, using colloidal particles and enzymes as building blocks appears to provide a promising and natural route to the realization of the proposals presented here.
The addition of a non-reciprocal flavour to specific interactions turns the equilibrium multifarious self-assembly model into the non-equilibrium multifarious self-organization model with a new shape-shifting property. Inspired by recent diverse physical models with non-reciprocal interactions18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26, we introduce non-reciprocal interactions between the tiles as follows. We define
The introduction of non-reciprocal interactions into the multifarious self-assembly model renders the problem to have inherent non-equilibriumness. As such, a faithful treatment of the stochastic dynamics will require the use of an appropriate master equation formalism. To help highlight the connection with the equilibrium multifarious self-assembly model, however, we have chosen to use a generalized Monte Carlo scheme in which we have incorporated the non-reciprocal interactions in the spirit of kinetic Monte Carlo algorithms. Our specific implementation can be justified with the assumption of separation of timescales between the process of self-assembly and shape-shifting transitions.
Shapeshifters are a supernatural species of humans born with the ability to physically assume the form of any animal. On the HBO original series True Blood, they are a branch of the Were variety, which includes werewolves and werepanthers. Unlike vampires, the existence of shapeshifters is not public knowledge.
A shapeshifter has the ability to take the form of any animal. To do so, the shifter must first mentally observe the animal's form in specific detail, a process known as imprinting. Apparently, a shifter needs to do this only once, and that animal's form can be assumed at will without the need to repeat the imprinting process.
Shapeshifters cannot assume the form of other humanoids unless they have caused the death of another shapeshifter. The ability to shift into humanoids is called skinwalking, and the imprinting process is so complex and taxing on their bodies that it can ravage their internal organs to the point of vomiting or even death.
Shapeshifters generally keep their identities secret and fear exposure from the human public. Biologically and socially, they are practically indistinguishable from regular humans. They are not immortal, and their rate of aging and expected life span is the same as humans. They have the same needs and weaknesses as humans. One particular characteristic of shifters is the urge to run and play in open, isolated places with other shifters or animals while assuming animal form. As with all Weres, shapeshifting is hereditary. An individual must be born a shifter, inheriting his or her status from one or both parents. They are able to reproduce with humans and other Weres; the species of the offspring of these disparate couplings occurs randomly. Shapeshifters do not posses the ability to shift from birth; this generally occurs spontaneously at some point in their youth under the force of a full moon.
As with all Weres, shapeshifters can shift at will, except during the nights of the full moon, the force of which causes them to shift against their will, usually to their "go to shift". However, if they fall asleep, become unconscious in animal form or, on nights of the full moon, the full moon faze passes, they will shift back into human form. In the Were hierarchy, they are considered to be the more intelligent and humane than "vicious" Weres. They are however physically weaker than Werewolves with their strength being equivalent with regular humans. 041b061a72